Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and its management has been a major focus in modern medicine. Interventional cardiology is a subspecialty of cardiology that focuses on the treatment of heart disease using minimally invasive procedures. These procedures are designed to treat blockages in the coronary arteries that cause chest pain (angina) or a heart attack. In this blog, we will discuss interventional procedures in cardiology in detail.
Coronary angioplasty is a procedure that involves inserting a catheter (a long, thin tube) into the blocked artery and inflating a small balloon at the tip of the catheter to open up the blocked area. This is a minimally invasive procedure that is performed under local anaesthesia. The balloon is then deflated and the catheter is removed. In some cases, a stent (a small, mesh-like device) may be placed to keep the artery open. This procedure is commonly used to treat angina, heart attack, and other types of coronary artery disease.
Stenting is a procedure that involves inserting a stent into the blocked artery to keep it open. A stent is a small, mesh-like device that is placed inside the artery to prevent it from closing again. Stents can be made of different materials such as metal or plastic. This procedure is commonly used in conjunction with angioplasty.
Atherectomy is a procedure that involves removing plaque buildup from the walls of the arteries using a catheter. This procedure is usually performed in conjunction with angioplasty or stenting.
Laser angioplasty is a procedure that uses a laser to remove plaque buildup from the walls of the arteries. This procedure is rarely used today due to the advent of other, more effective interventional procedures.
Rotational atherectomy is a procedure that involves removing plaque buildup from the walls of the arteries using a rotating catheter with a diamond tip. This procedure is usually performed in conjunction with angioplasty or stenting.
Balloon valvuloplasty is a procedure that involves inserting a catheter with a balloon at the tip into a narrowed heart valve. The balloon is then inflated to widen the valve opening. This procedure is commonly used to treat aortic stenosis, a condition in which the aortic valve narrows and restricts blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body.
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR):
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a minimally invasive procedure that involves replacing a diseased aortic valve with a new valve. The new valve is delivered to the heart through a catheter that is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin or chest. TAVR is typically performed in patients who are not good candidates for traditional open-heart surgery.
Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) Closure:
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure is a procedure that involves closing a small hole in the heart that is present at birth. The hole, called the foramen ovale, is supposed to close shortly after birth but remains open in some people. This can cause blood clots to travel from the veins to the arteries, which can lead to a stroke. PFO closure involves inserting a catheter with a small device at the tip into the hole and deploying the device to close it.
In conclusion, interventional cardiology has revolutionized the treatment of heart disease by offering minimally invasive procedures that are safe and effective.