Corona viruses are a type of virus. There are many different kinds, and some cause disease. A newly identified type has caused a recent outbreak of respiratory illness now called COVID-19 that started in China
How is COVID-19 spread?
Recent information indicates
COVID-19 may be passed from person to person. Community spread is being seen,
also. Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in a
particular area, including some people who are not sure how or where they became
infected. COVID-19 has been detected in people throughout China and in over 100
other countries, including the United States.
How is the virus transmitted?
The WHO reports that
human-to-human transmission is occurring with a preliminary R0 estimate of
(In epidemiology Ro denotes
the average number of secondary cases of an infectious disease that one case
would generate in a completely susceptible population) Current estimates of the
incubation period of the virus range from 2–10 days, but more information about
the mode of transmission is needed to confirm this. Experts are also still
unclear whether transmission can occur from asymptomatic individuals or during
the incubation period.
Advice for Public
Basic protective measures
against the new coronavirus
Wash your hands frequently
Wash your hands frequently with an alcohol-based
hand rub or soap and water. Why? Washing your hands with an
alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water kills the virus if it is on your
When coughing and sneezing, cover mouth and nose
with flexed elbow or tissue – discard tissue immediately into a closed bin and
clean your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water. Why?
Covering your mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing prevent the spread of
germs and viruses. If you sneeze or cough into your hands, you may contaminate
objects or people that you touch.
Maintain social distancing
Maintain at least 1 metre (3 feet) distance
between yourself and other people, particularly those who are coughing,
sneezing and have a fever. Why? When someone who is infected with a
respiratory disease, like 2019-nCoV, coughs or sneezes they project small
droplets containing the virus. If you are too close, you can breathe in the
Avoid touching eyes, nose
Why? Hands touch many surfaces which can
be contaminated with the virus. If you touch your eyes, nose or mouth with your
contaminated hands, you can transfer the virus from the surface to yourself.
If you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing,
seek medical care early. Tell your health care provider if you have travelled
in an area in China where 2019-nCoV has been reported, or if you have been in
close contact with someone with who has travelled from China and has
respiratory symptoms. Why? Whenever you have fever, cough and difficulty
breathing it’s important to seek medical attention promptly as this may be due
to a respiratory infection or other serious condition. Respiratory symptoms
with fever can have a range of causes, and depending on your personal travel
history and circumstances, 2019-nCoV could be one of them.
If you have mild
respiratory symptoms and no travel history to or within China
If you have mild respiratory symptoms and no
travel history to or within China, carefully practice basic respiratory and
hand hygiene and stay home until you are recovered, if possible.
As a general precaution, practice general
hygiene measures when visiting live animal markets, wet markets or animal
Symptoms and Preventive Measures
Symptoms of Corona Virus
General feeling of being unwell.
Shortness of breath.
Precautions to be taken to
prevent spread of infection
Frequently wash your hands (at least for 20 sec
thoroughly) with soap and running water and alcohol based hand rub after
coughing and sneezing or when caring for the sick or when in contact with
patient of cough and cold or in public gathering.
Cover your mouth and nose when sneezing and
coughing with flexed elbow or tissue and throw the tissue into closed dustbin
immediately after use.
Avoid close contact and stay home when you are
experiencing cough and fever and also avoid contact with anyone who has fever
or cough or maintain distance of 3 feet (1 metre) from the patient.
Avoid spiting in public and touching eyes, nose
and mouth with unwashed hands.
Avoid direct, unprotected contact with live
Avoid unnecessary travel aboard especially to
countries like Italy, Iran, China, Malaysia, Japan, South Korea and Singapore.
Seek early medical help if you have fever, cough
and difficulty in breathing and share previous travel history with your health
The infection is spread by droplets organisms
(size more than 5 micron) therefore, ordinary surgical mask can also give
Mask is not required to be worn by all, only
those with respiratory symptoms (coughing, sneezing and fever) need to use it
to protect others from getting virus. Dispose used mask properly.